- Dualism is the doctrine that, in a certain respect, there are two things or two sorts of thing. The most common use of the word now among Christian philosophers is to refer to the doctrine (properly 'substance dualism') that the human person is made up of two sorts of parts: physical (the body) and non-physical (the soul/mind); 'substance dualism' is also used to refer to the subtly different doctrine that a human person is a soul/mind using a body. A weaker version of this thesis is property dualism: the view that a person is a substance of but one kind (physical), but having both physical and non-physical properties. 'Substance dualism' is also used more generally to refer to the doctrine that substances come in two sorts in the world: mental substances and physical substances. This version of dualism allows for God (and perhaps angels and demons) to be the only mental/spiritual substances. An older usage of 'dualism' is for the idea that there are two principles, one good and one evil, fighting for the control of the universe. Dualism of this sort is reﬂected in Manichaeism, Zoroastrianism and Star Wars.See Descartes, RenéFurther reading: Descartes 1984-91; Robinson 1993; Swinburne 1997
Christian Philosophy . Daniel J. Hill and Randal D. Rauser. 2015.